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By Dorman Products
What is the best type of air filter? | Paper vs. gauze vs. oil bath
Continental has added eight new part numbers to its line of OEM knock sensors.
The sensors are the same part that the vehicle manufacturer uses and deliver the exact fit, form and function as the original part, ensuring an easy installation and long service life, according to Continental.
The eight new part numbers provide application coverage for some of the most popular domestic, European and Asian makes and models on the road today. The expanded line covers Chrysler, Dodge, Ford, Infiniti, Jeep, Lincoln, Mercedes-Benz, Mercury, Nissan and Ram models ranging from 2000 to 2023. The new sensors provide coverage for 28.8 million vehicles in operation (VIO) in the United States and 2.4 million vehicles in Canada.
“Our newly expanded line was developed to meet the growing need for reliable knock sensors on some of the most common vehicles on the road today,” noted Brendan Bachant, Continental product manager for engine management and fuel. “The original sensors can be prone to failure due to mechanical damage, excessive vibration, high engine temperatures, and corrosion. Continental has made these OEM sensors available to the aftermarket so that professional technicians can easily and confidently service the most common vehicles in the shop, like the Ford F-150 and Explorer, the Jeep Wrangler and the Nissan Maxima and Altima. Technicians can be confident when choosing the Continental knock sensor that they will avoid comebacks.”
Knock sensors are designed to detect engine ping caused by pre-ignition and relay the information to the electronic control unit to adjust engine timing and help keep the engine running smoothly. These sensors are an ideal repair for a rough-running engine with a timing and knock-sensor fault code and will help shops to restore the performance of their customers’ vehicles to OE specifications, according to Continental.
Continental knock sensors are built in ISO-certified facilities to deliver the highest level of dependability, the company noted.
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Fuel injection is as old as the internal combustion engine itself. However, many of the early systems proved to be somewhat troublesome and quirky. The carburetor, by comparison, was simple and dependable, and therefore the fuel system of choice for the majority of mass-produced vehicles through most of the 20th century.
For those who entered the automotive industry during the reign of the carburetor, fuel injection was so uncommon that as it began to make a comeback during the 1980s, it was largely misunderstood and tagged with the less-than-endearing term of “fuel infection.”
With the help of electronics and computer control, fuel-injection systems began to improve quickly and followed a course of evolution that introduced many different system designs. Suddenly, we were bombarded with unusual terms and acronyms like Jetronic, Motronic, TBI, MFI, GDI, TDI and many more. While it might have seemed confusing at first with so many different coined terms from so many different manufacturers, ultimately there are only two basic types of fuel injection.
Why Fuel Injection?
For efficient combustion to occur, fuel must be atomized first (broken up into the smallest particles possible) so it can mix with the air and vaporize. Only then will it properly burn inside the cylinder.
The job of a carburetor was simply to allow the air flowing through it to atomize the fuel as it draws it out of the various circuits. Carburetors work very well at doing this, but they also are inefficient in many ways, preventing them from remotely coming close to the efficiency required for the tightening emission regulations of the time.
This is where fuel injection proved itself a superior method of fuel metering. Fuel injection atomizes the fuel as it exits the tip of the injector. But even more importantly, with the combined advance in electronics and computer controls, it also provides precise control of the amount of fuel – a critical aspect for fuel economy and emission control.
Indirect Fuel Injection
Indirect means the fuel is injected and atomized before it enters the combustion chamber. Throttle-body injection (TBI), sometimes referred to as single-point injection, is a type of indirect injection in which the injector is located in a throttle body before the intake manifold. The throttle body looks similar to a carburetor and uses many similar components such as the intake manifold and air cleaner.
This was done by design, as it was the most efficient and quickest way for auto manufacturers to make the change to fuel injection, while utilizing many of the same components. Port, or multi-point, injection injects fuel into the intake runner just before the intake valve for each cylinder. Still a form of indirect injection because it occurs before it enters the combustion chamber, the advantage is the ability to precisely control the fuel delivery and balance the air flow into each cylinder, leading to increased power output and improved fuel economy.
Whether an engine is carbureted or fuel-injected, atomization of the fuel is critical for combustion. Many variables affect atomization, and even though a fuel injector initiates the process, the airflow and other objects around it will affect how well the atomized fuel mixes with the air and vaporizes. The location of the injector as well as the design of surrounding components are critical aspects of engine design.
TBI is at a disadvantage because the airflow is interrupted by the injector – another reason that port injection has the advantage and has made TBI obsolete on newer vehicles.
Diesel engines are fuel-injected because diesel fuel doesn’t atomize and evaporate like gasoline. It must be injected into an air stream at high pressure to atomize, and the turbulence of the air is an important factor in causing the air and fuel to mix.
Early on, due to the difficulties of creating an efficient direct-injection system, many diesel engines utilized a pre-combustion chamber that created the necessary turbulence for proper fuel atomization. The fuel was injected into this pre-combustion chamber, making these indirect fuel-injection systems as well.
Direct Fuel Injection
Direct means the fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber. The challenge with this type of injection is the pressure inside the combustion chamber is much higher than that of the pressure in the intake manifold of an indirect-injection system.
For the fuel to be pushed out of the injector and atomized, it must overcome the high pressure in the cylinder. Indirect systems have a single fuel pump in the tank that provides adequate pressure for the system to operate, usually 40 to 65 pounds per square inch (psi). Direct systems utilize a similar pump to supply fuel to the rail but require an extra mechanically driven high-pressure pump that allows them to overcome cylinder pressure. These systems usually operate at 2,000 psi or higher.
Direct-injection systems can be identified easily by the location of the injectors going directly into the cylinder head as well as the additional lines and mechanical pump, usually visible above the valve cover.
The primary advantage of direct injection is that there is less time for the air/fuel mixture to heat up since the fuel isn’t injected in the cylinder until immediately before combustion. This reduces the chance of detonation, or the fuel igniting from the heat and pressure in the cylinder. This allows a direct-injected engine to have higher compression, which itself lends to higher performance.
Another advantage is reduced emissions and fuel consumption. With indirect injection, fuel can accumulate on the intake manifold or intake ports, whereas with direct injection, the entire amount of fuel sprayed from the injector is the exact amount that will be burned, ultimately leading to more accurate control over the combustion process.
The overall performance and efficiency of direct injection can’t be matched. However, there are still some disadvantages to it when compared with indirect injection. One of the most well-publicized is carbon buildup on the back of the intake valves. Fuel is a great cleaner, and the fuel spray from a port-injected engine keeps the back of the valves clean. Without it, excessive carbon buildup occurs, leading to interrupted airflow into the engine, reduced performance and an expensive repair.
While not an issue for typical everyday driving, indirect injection is limited at high engine rpm because there simply isn’t enough time for the injector to release the fuel and for it to properly atomize. Since port-injected engines spray fuel before or as the intake valve is opening and complete vaporization occurs and the air is pulled into the cylinder, there’s no rpm limit with indirect injection.
Low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) is a common term you may have heard, and it’s a problem that exposes another chink in the armor of direct injection. The piston and combustion-chamber design of a direct-injected engine is very specific to create the proper air turbulence to completely vaporize the fuel for combustion. At low rpm, the piston is not able to create the proper turbulence, leaving unvaporized fuel pockets that combine with contaminants from oil vapor and carbon buildup, leading to pre-ignition.
While this problem specifically occurs on direct-injected engines, it can worsen with some engine oils depending on the additives they contain. This is why new oils are advertised to prevent LSPI.
As engine technology advanced, diesel engines saw changes in piston and combustion-chamber design that allowed them to make the switch to direct injection and realize the same performance benefits.
So, your two basic types of fuel injection are indirect and direct. There are advantages and disadvantages to both. What’s next? The simplest solution in the book: dual injection. Now manufacturers are building cars with both. Computer control utilizes both systems to eliminate the weaknesses and exploit the strong points of each type of system. It’s the best of both worlds. Wasn’t that easy?
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Advance Auto Parts Offering Students a Chance to Win a ‘Fuel Ride to College’ and Free ‘Off-to-Campus’ In-Store ServicesBy Advance Auto Parts
ADVANCE AUTO PARTS OFFERING STUDENTS A CHANCE TO WIN A ‘FUEL RIDE TO COLLEGE’ AND FREE ‘OFF-TO-CAMPUS’ IN-STORE SERVICES
Incoming college freshmen can enter to win a “fuel ride” – four years of free gasoline – after new national survey reveals gas is a significant financial strain for majority of students
RALEIGH, N.C.--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- Advance Auto Parts (NYSE: AAP), a leading automotive aftermarket parts provider, announced today that it will help advance the education of incoming college freshmen, and ease their financial burden, by awarding 10 “fuel rides” in the form of four years of free gasoline to 10 lucky winners of the “Fuel Ride to College” sweepstakes.*
This press release features multimedia. View the full release here:
link hidden, please login to view Along with providing four years of free gas to 10 college students, Advance Auto Parts is offering free in-store services, including free battery testing and installation, wiper blade installation and check engine light scanning. (Photo: Business Wire)
Advance’s “Fuel Ride to College” sweepstakes arrives right on time as prices at the pump tick up. New data from Atomik Research reveals that 67% of college students cite gasoline for their automobile as being an expense that puts the most financial strain on their wallet**, while 76% of parents of incoming freshmen say they are worried about their student’s ability to afford gas.***
Parents also have significant anxiety regarding the safety of their college students when it comes to the automobiles they operate, according to Atomik Research surveys commissioned by Advance. Nearly two-thirds (63%) of parents of incoming college freshmen feel very or extremely anxious about their student’s safety when it comes to maintaining their cars and about three-fourths (73%) of parents have more anxiety about the car safety of their incoming college freshman than they did during the child’s senior year in high school.
Parents’ anxiety is warranted as more than half of college students admit to having ignored dashboard alerts and notifications, including “check engine” and “low battery warning,” according to the survey.
To help ease this anxiety, Advance and its team of friendly automotive experts are offering students and their parents free “off-to-campus” in-store services at Advance stores nationwide, including free battery testing and installation, wiper blade installation and check engine light scanning.
In addition to awarding 10 four-year “Fuel Rides to College,” Advance will also award 20 additional winners a $100 Advance gift card to stock up on essentials to help keep their automobiles in reliable shape this school year. If interested in learning more, visit
link hidden, please login to view through Aug. 18 to review eligibility requirements to enter for a chance to win and to review the sweepstakes rules. “Starting college is exciting for incoming freshmen, but that excitement is accompanied by anxiety and worry for both students and their parents, especially regarding finances and safety,” said Samantha Avivi, Advance’s chief marketing officer. “Through our ‘Fuel Ride to College’ program and complimentary curbside services for motorists, we want to put the brakes on fuel-filled worries for both students and parents, especially when it comes to having a reliable and safe automobile on the road to college, around campus, back home and everywhere in between.”
Additional data from the Atomik surveys validate the value of a “Fuel Ride to College:”
One-third (33%) of students cite that a lack of gas money or the cost of gas has deterred them from going to class, the library or study groups, while 60% of incoming college students’ parents express this exact worry: that the cost of gas will deter their child from going to class or education-related activities. Many college students choose between fueling their body and their automobile: more than one-third (36%) say they have compromised or cut back on groceries to fit gas money into their budget. One-quarter (25%) of college students say they’ve had to cut back or compromise school supplies to fuel their automobiles. Advance has also partnered with auto racing driver and television personality Arie Luyendyk Jr. to encourage incoming freshmen to enter for a chance to win a “Fuel Ride to College” and spread the word about Advance’s commitment to providing parents peace of mind via complimentary in-store services. Check out
link hidden, please login to view or visit an link hidden, please login to view to shop for auto parts and products needed to get vehicles in shape for the school year or to receive a free off-to-campus vehicle checkup. About Advance Auto Parts
Advance Auto Parts, Inc. is a leading automotive aftermarket parts provider that serves both professional installer and do-it-yourself customers. As of April 22, 2023, Advance operated 4,778 stores and 318 Worldpac branches primarily within the United States, with additional locations in Canada, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The company also served 1,315 independently owned Carquest branded stores across these locations in addition to Mexico and various Caribbean islands. Additional information about Advance, including employment opportunities, customer services, and online shopping for parts, accessories and other offerings can be found at
link hidden, please login to view. * NO PURCHASE NECESSARY TO ENTER OR WIN. A PURCHASE WILL NOT INCREASE YOUR CHANCES OF WINNING. Open only to legal residents of the 50 United States (D.C.), 17 to 20 years of age. Void where prohibited by law. Sweepstakes begins at 8:00 am ET on 8/7/23 and ends at 11:59 pm ET on 8/18/23. Subject to full Official Rules including prizes and odds,
link hidden, please login to view. Sponsor: Advance Stores Company, Incorporated, 4200 Six Forks Road, Raleigh, NC 27609. ** Atomik Research conducted an online survey of 1,003 college students across the United States between July 10 and 12, 2023. Qualified respondents are students currently enrolled or planning to be enrolled at a college, university, community college or trade school this fall and who own and/or regularly operate a car. The age of participants ranges between 18 and 24. Margin of error of the sample is +/- 3 percentage points with a confidence level of 95%.
*** Atomik Research conducted an online survey of 504 parents of incoming college freshmen across the United States between July 10 and 18, 2023. Qualified respondents are parents of incoming freshmen, who own or regularly operate a car, and are planning to be enrolled at a college, university, community college or trade school this fall. Margin of error of the sample is +/- 4 percentage points with a confidence level of 95%.
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Advance Auto Parts Contacts:
T: (919) 227-5466
E: [email protected]
T: (984) 389-7207
E: [email protected]
Source: Advance Auto Parts
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