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How To: Replace a Blower Motor Resistor


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    • By Counterman
      ENEOS USA Inc. recently announced that ENEOS X Prime 0W-8 fully synthetic motor oil will be available in spring 2023.
      The ultra-low-viscosity 0W-8 was created in partnership with Asian OEMs, which requested the special formulation to meet stringent emissions and economy standards. Not only will ENEOS X Prime 0W-8 oil be supplied to manufacturers for factory-fill requirements, but it also it will be available for oil changes by dealer networks and for DIY maintenance.
      Applications
      ENEOS X Prime 0W-8 is 100% synthetic oil developed in partnership with Asian automakers for use in the latest hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) where 0W-8 is specified. This currently includes vehicles from Honda, Toyota, Nissan and Mitsubishi. The oil also is suitable for battery electric vehicles (BEV) fitted with thermal gasoline engines used as a range extender. A number of 2023 production vehicles will require 0W-8, including the Toyota Yaris, Honda Fit, and Nissan Dayz.
      Testing and Standards
      ENEOS extensively market-tested X Prime 0W-8 in Japan for nine years to produce this optimized formula, which provides extreme fuel efficiency with maximum engine protection, while meeting the required domestic standards, according to the company. ENEOS helped establish the JASO GLV-1 specification, creating and establishing the testing methods while performing engine-testing methods with OEM-provided test engines. ENEOS 0W-8 meets these new JASO GLV-1 standards. No API or ILSAC 0W-8 testing standards currently exist.
      Packaging
      ENEOS USA Inc. will release ENEOS X Prime 0W-8 in single 1-quart containers (part No. 3000-300). More information will be available closer to production.
      Additional details are available on the
      link hidden, please login to view. ENEOS is the largest oil company in Japan. As the “original JDM oil,” ENEOS has been working in partnership with Asian automakers for decades. As part of this partnership, ENEOS has in-house testing facilities where the company follows strategies developed with each OEM partner to meet their vehicle and performance specifications, particularly for the tighter tolerances of Asian engines that are now being seen more in European and domestic vehicles.
      ENEOS provides R&D and factory fill for Asian automakers in factories around the world. This access provides ENEOS with unreleased vehicle specifications, allowing the organization to develop lubrication formulations that specifically meet (or exceed) vehicle needs. Because of these partnerships, ENEOS products are designed to anticipate future requirements beyond current domestic vehicle standards.
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    • By Counterman
      I love this topic. Unfortunately, many brake rotors end up unnecessarily in the scrap pile. But I also know the reasons why, and if I’m looking to place blame, well, we only can blame ourselves. But is it bad? I’ll get into that down the page, but let me set the stage first.
      Types of Rotors
      Up through the mid-‘70s, the majority of all brake rotors “on the road” were hubbed rotors. What this meant is that the hub was cast into the rotor. Most cars and trucks up through that time were rear-wheel drive, and if they had disc brakes as an option, 99% of the time it was on the front only. The front wheel bearings of these cars were housed in the hub of the rotor. The rotors were very heavy and expensive to produce, and the wheel bearings were the tapered style of roller bearing that required regular cleaning, greasing, adjustment and seal replacement.
      As front-wheel-drive cars grew in popularity in the mid-‘70s, so did the hubless or “hat” style of brake rotor. Hubbed rotors remained in regular use up through the mid-‘90s, but their popularity steadily declined until the hat rotor became almost the sole design choice of auto manufacturers. Hat rotors were far easier to service, with the front wheel bearings being sealed units mounted into the front steering knuckle. Hat rotors simply slid into place, and they were lighter-weight, less expensive and easier to manufacture.
      It’s All About the Metal
      Brake rotors get hot during braking, and they need to dissipate heat quickly. Functionally, all a brake rotor really does is absorb and dissipate heat. If a rotor gets too hot, it will cause brake fade and may easily warp, diminishing braking performance and causing severe brake vibration. The heavier the vehicle or the faster you’re going, the larger the rotors need to be, because the harder the brakes work, the more heat they produce.
      So, the size of a brake rotor is proportionate to the type of braking it will be required to do. What’s a larger rotor? It’s more metal. What’s a thicker rotor? It’s more metal. And what determines how much heat can be absorbed and dissipated? The physical amount of metal. When a rotor wears, the diameter stays the same, but they get thinner, and when you resurface them, you’re removing even more material. The less metal you have, the less heat the rotor is able to absorb and dissipate.
      How Brake Pads and Rotors Interact
      Under normal braking, the surface of the rotor will become grooved to varying degrees based upon the pad material. This doesn’t affect the braking; because it occurs as a result of the contact between the brake pads and rotors, the surface of the two remain contoured. However, this surface is not acceptable when installing new brake pads and prevents the correct break-in of new pads, and it causes uneven pad wear and noise. “Pad slapping” is the comical term we use to describe replacing brake pads without resurfacing or replacing the rotors.
      New brake pads have a break-in or “bedding” process that consists of repeated moderate braking. The purpose of the process is to bring the pads up to high temperatures in a controlled manner. When this occurs, the pad and rotor will transfer a thin layer of friction material to each other, allowing them to properly seat together. This is a very important aspect of brake service, as it ensures maximum braking and prevents brake fade, and this process only will occur correctly when new pads are mated with new or resurfaced rotors.
      Turning the Rotors
      We call it “turning,” because that’s the name of the machining process in which a workpiece is rotated against a fixed cutting tool. Any surface irregularities, including any grooves formed from normal service and also any rust or pitting, can be removed by turning the rotor.
      In addition to surface condition, rotors often suffer from different forms of distortion. Lateral runout is the side-to-side movement of a rotor, measured with a dial indicator while rotating it by hand. Parallelism is the thickness of a rotor measured at multiple spots around the circumference for comparison. When describing this to a customer, we generally use the basic term “warped” rotor. These conditions will cause a vibration during braking, and in some cases, just driving at higher speeds.
      Either one can be caused by normal wear or by incorrect mounting or installation of the rotor and wheels. Customers know what it means to have a warped rotor, and few of them care about the more technical terminology. Turning a rotor will correct these problems as well.
      Turning a rotor involves a number of steps, the first of which is measuring it to determine if it still will be above the minimum thickness afterward. In most cases, the minimum thickness is cast or stamped into the rotor, but often it’s rusty and difficult to find, so we generally have to look up the specification anyhow.
      Typically, when you turn a rotor, you’re going to remove a total of about .015 inches to .020 inches (15 to 20 thousandths of an inch) of material. It may be less on a really clean rotor, or more on a rusty, pitted or warped one. After measuring the thickness of the rotor and assessing the condition, you’ll know whether you have plenty of material left to turn it, or whether it’ll be too thin when you’re done.
      If you determine the rotor can be turned, the next step is to remove it from the vehicle and mount it on the brake lathe. Hat rotors require a thorough cleaning and rust removal from the mounting surface to ensure they seat properly on the brake lathe. The mounting surfaces for a hubbed rotor are the wheel-bearing races, from which you can just wipe away the excess grease.
      When the turning is complete and you’ve taken a final measurement to ensure the rotor is still at or above minimum thickness, the next step is to put a non-directional finish on the brake rotor, which aids in proper break-in. The most popular method is to use an angle-grinder with a cleaning disc, and it literally only takes a few seconds per side.
      The final step includes washing the rotor in a mild soap-and-water solution. Though not visible, small metal particles remain on the rotor after turning, and these particles will embed themselves in the pad and prevent an effective break-in. Washing the rotor removes these particles. Hubbed rotors will require removing all the old grease, since a wheel-bearing clean and repack is a normal part of this service.
      Back in the Day
      There was a time when the hum of a brake lathe was almost as constant as the ticking of the clock on the shop wall. Hubbed rotors were big, heavy and expensive, and they lasted a long time, because they could be turned and reused multiple times before they were too thin to put back in service. The expectation of customers during this era was that their rotors would be “turned” during brake service. Even with the additional cost of labor, it still was far more expensive to replace them.
      As the hat rotor slowly became the predominant rotor in use, many other changes were taking place in the automotive industry. Auto parts stores were opening up to meet the demands of the increasing number of cars on the road, and parts were being manufactured overseas. Price competition was high, and the more parts that were produced (hot rotors included), the less expensive they became.
      At the same time, technician salaries were increasing, and suddenly, the labor cost to turn rotors was increasing. Then there was the process of turning the rotors. My intent in describing the process was to provide an indication of the amount of work involved, but any machining process requires very specific knowledge and procedure as well.
      Turning a rotor is a machining process that can be done wrong as easily as it can be done right. Traditional hubbed rotors were very heavy, and as a result easier to turn because the weight inherently reduced vibration, and mounting them on the lathe was easy and straightforward.
      Two things kill a rotor when turning it. One, vibration; and two, incorrect mounting. Guess what? You probably figured this: Hat rotors are lightweight, so it’s much more difficult to prevent vibration, and they’re commonly mounted incorrectly on the lathe. Most of this happens because of incorrect training, or simply a shop not having the proper lathe adapters, or both. But that subject can be reserved for a whole different article.
      The trouble involved with turning hat rotors was sort of a nail in the coffin for the whole process. In today’s shops, you rarely hear the sound of a brake lathe. A good majority of the rotors that are scrapped could be turned and returned to service. But a new set of rotors is less expensive than the labor to resurface an old set (hubbed rotors being the exception). Then when you factor in the reality that they quite possibly could be machined incorrectly – causing a comeback – it simply doesn’t make sense.
      Replacing them is quicker, a shop makes money on the parts, technicians make more money on labor and they can get onto the next job quicker. It’s easy to think it’s wasteful when the old rotors could in reality be turned, but on the other hand, maybe it’s good for the economy. Shops make more money and parts stores make more money too. And the old rotors don’t end up polluting a landfill; they’re one of a scrapper’s favorite metals.
      They provide a source of income for scrappers and metal-salvage yards. Some shops save them and haul them in for scrap themselves. It’s good pizza money for the shop … or perhaps a cold beverage of sorts.
      When and Why
      Technically speaking, any brake rotor only needs replaced when it can no longer be resurfaced and remain at or above the minimum thickness specification. In the real world, as you can see, this really only holds true for hubbed rotors, which for the most part we only see on older cars and trucks. Resurfacing these rotors are the only ones we can justify, when you compare the expense of replacement.
      However, even if a rotor can be turned from the standpoint of thickness, there still are two other factors that can deem it scrap instead. One is cracks that occasionally result from the continuous heat-and-cooling cycle of a rotor. If a rotor is cracked, it should be replaced. The other is hot spots, which occur when rotors aren’t broken in properly. Pad material is deposited unevenly on the rotor, and these spots cannot dissipate heat properly, causing brake vibration.
      Hot spots are easily identified by an obvious discoloration on the surface of the rotor. In some cases, these can be removed by resurfacing the rotor.
      Selling Your Customer
      Your customer probably just wants a quick answer about replacement. Here’s an easy approach: Due to the critical importance of breaking in new pads, which relies on the surface of the rotor, any time you’re replacing pads, the rotors should be replaced as well – unless it makes economic sense to turn them. And that’s the key. With any rotor problems, unless it makes economic sense to resurface, replace them. As with any brake work, don’t forget to make sure caliper and pad slides are clean and working properly, and always torque those wheels.
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    • By NAPA
      If you drive a vehicle with an internal combustion engine, you can think of the battery like your vehicle’s beating heart. The battery cables act like arteries running a current to the alternator, which powers electronic systems such as the ignition system, the ECM (Electronic Control Module) and the lighting system.
      Bad Battery Cable Symptoms
      Just like in other areas of your vehicle, the components of your battery system will wear out and fail over time. Symptoms of worn or frayed battery cables are like that of a dying battery:
      Dimming or flickering of interior lights or headlights Engine hesitation when starting Clicking noises If you notice a buildup of flaky white or blue crust around the top or sides of your battery, that’s corrosion. It’s a common problem caused by small amounts of escaping hydrogen gas or leaking electrolytes on the top of your battery or the battery cable terminals. Corrosion can develop on older batteries that were overcharged, undercharged or exposed to certain environmental factors.
      The NAPA Network can show you how to replace battery cables in your car, as well as
      link hidden, please login to view, your link hidden, please login to view, your link hidden, please login to view and—depending on the extent of the damage—your battery tray and link hidden, please login to view. If you determine your battery has good voltage by using a link hidden, please login to view and doesn’t need replacing, then it’s time to check your link hidden, please login to view. Start at the cable terminals attached to the battery posts. Inspect both the positive and negative cables for fraying, knicks and splits. If you see anything that doesn’t look right, it’s time to replace the cables.
      Replacing Battery Cables
      Just like any good at-home automotive repair, you should start with all your tools ready to go, as well as safety equipment such as
      link hidden, please login to view and link hidden, please login to view. Replacing battery cables is straightforward, and you’ll need the following: link hidden, please login to view A Socket Wrench link hidden, please login to view link hidden, please login to view Step 1 – Using the screwdriver or socket wrench, gently disconnect the battery terminals from the battery posts—starting with the negative cable—then disconnect the positive to avoid shorting and potential danger. Trace the path of the negative cable to the chassis, then trace the positive cable to the fuse box. Make sure to take a picture or otherwise note the course so you can route the new cables correctly.
      Step 2 – Use the ratchet to loosen the negative ground nut, then remove the nut that holds the positive cable to the fuse block. Inspect these for corrosion and damage and replace them if the metal is soft or the threading is deteriorated. Inspect the terminal posts on top of the battery and use a
      link hidden, please login to view to remove any corrosion. Step 3 – Install the new cables starting with the negative. Reattach the negative ground nut to the chassis and the nut that holds the positive cable to the fuse block. Make sure the nuts are tight and snug.
      Step 4 – Route the cables the way you originally found them and connect the terminal ends to the clean battery posts starting with the positive cable, then the negative cable.
      Step 5 – Start your vehicle and ensure the electrical systems work properly.
      Removing corrosion, cleaning your battery terminals and replacing worn battery cables is a part of routine vehicle battery maintenance that most at-home mechanics can do. However, this job involves the electrical system of your vehicle, so if you don’t feel comfortable doing the replacement yourself or can’t find the time, we are here to help. Just find a friendly local
      link hidden, please login to view near you, and one of our ASE-certified technicians will replace the battery cables in your vehicle for you. We can even help you with an link hidden, please login to view to help you budget for your repairs and get you back on the road in no time! Photo courtesy of
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    • By Counterman
      Here’s a scenario: A customer comes into your store looking for an engine mount, and they brought the old one in with them. You’re looking the mount over in your hands, and you notice an electrical connector or vacuum port on the bottom side. What could that possibly be for? It’s just an engine mount, right?
      An electrical or vacuum connection on an engine mount indicates that it’s an active mount. So, what do you and your customer need to know about these mounts?
      The Evolution of Motor Mounts
      In the past, engines and transmissions were supported by simple rubber mounts. All engines produce vibrations – also known as noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). The natural flexibility of the rubber would allow the mounts to absorb NVH and prevent them from being transferred into the vehicle cabin. But as engines evolved over the years, motor mounts needed to be able to handle different conditions.
      Hydraulic motor mounts were developed to help counteract the NVH that was produced by more modern engines. A non-hydraulic mount typically will feature a number of empty internal voids. These voids are a product of clever engineering, and they allow for deflection/compression in a specific direction when placed under load. Hydraulic bushings fill those empty voids with a fluid. This fluid works like a hydraulic damper, while still allowing for deflection/compression when under load.
      The word “hydraulic” might imply that hydraulic fluid or oil is used inside these mounts. However, they typically use a glycol mixture instead. Oil or hydraulic fluid would break down the rubber inside the bushing and cause it to fail prematurely. If you’ve ever seen a radiator hose swell up after it was exposed to engine oil, you know what I’m talking about.
      But, engines continued to evolve, and the motor mounts needed to stand up to even tougher operating conditions. Modern engines make more power with less displacement, are more compact than ever before and may utilize cylinder deactivation and/or engine stop/start to help reduce emissions. It’s safe to say that modern motor mounts needed to evolve to absorb NVH and hold up to the added workload.
      Active motor mounts were developed in response to this need. Instead of relying solely on the flexibility of the rubber, or the damping effect of the hydraulic fluid, active mounts use vacuum or electrical signals to change the firmness based on operation criteria. Let’s take a look at how these mounts operate, and then we’ll go over a few pointers when talking to your customers.
      How Do Active Motor Mounts Work?
      Early active mounts used engine vacuum to change the damping behavior of the mount based on operating conditions. High engine vacuum at idle will make the mount more compliant and it will absorb NVH with ease. Then, when the vehicle starts to accelerate, the engine vacuum will drop. This causes the mount to firm up, and prevent excessive engine movement under load.
      Electronically controlled active mounts work in a similar fashion, but without using engine vacuum. Electronic mounts will use an electronic actuator, which is controlled by the ECU. The ECU is able to change the firmness of the mount based on its programming and sensor input data. Their main advantage comes in the form of speed and precision. The mount is able to alter its operation at will, without needing to rely on engine vacuum. More advanced electronic mounts are able to generate counter vibrations that help to cancel out the vibrations coming from the engine, much like a balance shaft helps to cancel out vibrations generated by the engines rotating assembly.
      Active mounts are found on a number of late-model vehicles, including Audi, Honda, Hyundai, Jaguar, Lexus, Toyota and others. Active motor mounts will be more expensive to replace than non-active mounts, but their benefits far outweigh the cost difference.
      Considerations During Service
      All mounts eventually will wear out and need to be replaced. Active mounts might crack, rip, tear or sag just the same as non-active mounts will. Hydraulic fluid might leak from the mount, and this is a big giveaway. Failing mounts typically will exhibit one or more of the following symptoms:
      • Clunking or knocking noises on or off throttle (as the engine rocks back and forth)
      • Evidence of fluid leaks coming from the mounts
      • Excessive engine movement
      • Increased NVH transferring into the vehicle cabin
      • An illuminated “Check Engine” light, and DTCs stored in the ECU
      Remember that a leaky hydraulic or active mount could be mistaken for an engine-oil leak. Be sure to advise your customer to thoroughly inspect the vacuum hoses and/or wiring harnesses and connectors for any signs of wear, damage or corrosion. A faulty electrical connection or vacuum hose could trigger a DTC, and the engine mount could be wrongly condemned as the faulty component. Test for power at the vacuum-control solenoid. If power is present, check the fuse and wiring next.
      We strongly recommend replacing mounts in pairs at the very least, but ideally, all engine and transmission mounts should be replaced together. If one has failed, chances are high that the others are close behind.
      Excessive drivetrain movement can cause other components to wear prematurely. The service life of driveshafts, CV axles and other components can be reduced if the drivetrain mounts are worn out or loose. If they’ve suffered a CV-joint failure, it’s a good idea to take a good, hard look at the engine and transmission mounts. Excessive engine movement also can increase the likelihood of hoses or lines stretching, rubbing or failing. Throttle linkage could bind or stick, assuming that the vehicle uses a cable rather than drive-by-wire. A faulty transmission mount can cause driveline noises, especially when starting off from a stop or accelerating. In extreme cases, the operation of the clutch can be affected as well.
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    • By Counterman
      Standard Motor Products (SMP) has introduced 365 new part numbers for October.
      Included in the release is new coverage for more than 107 product categories, and 110 part numbers for 2021 and 2022 model-year vehicles.
      SMP’s commitment to providing replacement parts for hybrid and electric vehicles through its Standard and Four Seasons brands is evident in this release. The October new-number announcement added new part numbers for the 2021 Mustang Mach-E, 2017-2011 Nissan Leaf, 2022-2010 Toyota Prius and more.
      The addition of more than 130 new sensors, switches, actuators and connectors also expands Standard’s powertrain-neutral coverage.
      The Standard ADAS program continues to grow. The October new-number announcement includes new park-assist cameras and park-assist sensors. Cruise-control distance sensors are now available for popular Ford and Lincoln trucks and SUVs, and lane-departure system cameras have been added for the 2021-2019 Ford Ranger and 2016-2015 Honda CR-V.
      “The 365 products added to our product line with the recent release are a welcome addition to our ever-expanding programs,” said John Herc, vice president engine of management marketing, SMP. “Once again, Standard Motor Products is proving its dedication to our loyal distribution partners and service providers, supplying them with the parts they need and the quality they trust.”
      The Standard turbocharger program expands with each release. This month, three new turbocharger kits add coverage for more than 1.2 million popular Ford vehicles including the 2017-2015 F-150. The program wouldn’t be complete without related parts, which include turbocharger oil lines, turbocharger outlet elbows, turbocharger coolant lines, turbocharger oil-drain tubes, turbocharger wastegate solenoids and charge-air coolers.
      Standard’s collision repair program continues to expand with the addition of radiator active grille shutter assemblies for the 2019-18 Ford F-150 and 2018-2015 Edge. Additionally, ride-height sensors have been added for popular vehicles such as the 2020-2015 Cadillac Escalade and Chevrolet Suburban. Power door-lock actuators, trunk-lock actuator motors, and tailgate-lock actuator motors are just a few more of the collision products also included in the release.
      Standard has released new transfer-case motors for more than 7 million vehicles. This growing line now covers a multitude of popular applications such as the 2022-2011 Dodge Durango, 2022-2011 Jeep Grand Cherokee and 2016-1999 Ford F-Series Super Duty.
      Four Seasons, SMP’s Temperature Control Division, has added 94 new part numbers to its product line, including 19 new hose assemblies covering more than 2.7 million domestic and import vehicles. Popular applications include the 2022-2017 Honda CR-V, 2020-2016 Honda Pilot, 2019-2013 Ford Explorer and 2019-2014 Ford Interceptor Utility.
      Also new from Four Seasons are new air door actuators, adding exclusive coverage for the 2019-2009 Toyota Corolla and 2018-2006 Toyota RAV4. Additionally, many heater valves, filter driers, condensers, evaporators, heater cores and more are part of the release, helping Four Seasons to provide technicians with the parts necessary for a complete A/C service.
      All new applications are listed in the catalogs found at
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